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廣東專插本考試英語語法大全(最新)

時間:2018-09-01 00:18:58  發布: 廣東省專插本招生   

廣東專插本考試英語語法大全(最新)

、不定式

1.不定式做主語

(1)引導邏輯主語的介詞:不定式的邏輯主語一般由介詞for引導,但下列表示人的性格行為特征的形容詞做表語時, 不定式的邏輯主語則由of引導:

absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong。如:

Experts say walking is one of the best ways for a person to stay healthy.

It’s clever of you to have invented such a device.

(2)不定式做主語補足語:

掌握常用不定式做主語補足語的句型。注意不定式表示的動作發生的時間,并采用相應形式。如:

be said / reported / thought / believed / known / supposed + to do sth.

2.不定式做賓語

掌握要求接不定式做賓語的動詞:

afford, arrange, attempt, claim, desire, determine, expect, fail, guarantee, endeavor, intend, pledge, pretend, resolve, request, swear, tend, venture。如:

Even though the children pretended to be asleep, the nurses were not deceived when they came into the room.

3.不定式做定語

(1)被修飾的名詞前有序數詞、形容詞最高級或next, last, only, not a, the, very等限定詞時,該名詞用不定式做定語。如:the first woman to set foot on the moon 第一個登上月球的女性

(2)如果其動詞要求不定式做賓語,相應的名詞一般用不定式做定語。如:

tendency to do→tend to do, decision to do→decide to do

This book is an attempt to help you use English and recognize how it is used.

(3)如果其形容詞形式要求接不定式做補語,相應的名詞一般用不定式做定語。如:

ambition to do “干……的雄心”→be ambitious to do“有雄心干……”

curiosity to do “對……的好奇心”→be curious to do“對……好奇”

ability to do“做……的能力”→able to do“有能力做……”

According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species’ ability to survive are naturally selected and passed on to succeeding generation.

(4)表示方式、原因、時間、機會、權利等名詞用不定式做定語,這些名詞包括:

way, method, reason, time, place, chance, occasion, opportunity, evidence, power, right, movement, drive (運動),effort等。如:I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.

We appreciate your efforts to bring about a comprehensive solution to the existing problem.

(5)不定代詞something, nothing, little, much, a lot習慣上用不定式做定語。如:

Though we have made great progress, there is still much to be improved.

4.不定式做狀語

不定式做狀語主要表示目的、程度、結果、方式。

(1)in order to(do), so as to(do)結構引導目的狀語,so as to不能置于句首。如:

(2)so…as to, such…as to, enough…to, too…to結構做程度狀語。如:

The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don’t have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together.

The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so trivial and few as hardly to be noticed.

(3)不定式做結果狀語只能出現在句子的末尾,表示不愉快的結果,有時用only加強語氣。

常見的不定式動詞有find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce等。如:

Greatly agitated, I rushed to the apartment and tried the door, only to find it locked.

(4)not/never too… to, too… not to, but/only too…to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意義。如:

I am only too pleased to hear from you further. 能再聽到你的消息,我太高興了。

、動名詞

1.必須接動名詞做賓語的動詞

牢記下列要求接動名詞做賓語的動詞:

acknowledge, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, admit, confess, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, justify, mention, pardon, practice, postpone, recall,recollect,risk, resist, suggest, tolerate。如:

I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.

2.動名詞做介詞短語

考生尤其要識別下列短語中的to是介詞,不是不定式符號:

object to, resort to, react to, contribute to, look forward to, be accustomed to, be committed to, be exposed to, be subjected to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, be opposed to, be reconciled to, be contrary to, be (get) used to, come close to, get down to, give oneself up to, prefer…to, see to, set to, take to, in addition to, with regard to, with a view to, on the way to。

、時態、語態

時態、語態需要掌握的要點:

1.表達將來時的形式:

(1)在時間、條件、讓步從句中,一般現在時代替將來時,但要注意區別從句的類型,如:

I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告訴他你什么時候再來電話。(賓語從句)

比較:I’ll tell him when you ring again.你再打電話時我告訴他。(狀語從句)

(2)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that從句中,謂語動詞用一般現在時代替將來時,如:

See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time.

(include 不能用will include或其他形式)

2.完成時是時態測試的重點,注意與完成時連用的句型和時間狀語:

(1)by/between/up to/till +過去時間、since、by the time/when +表示過去發生情況的從句,主句用過去完成時。如:We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.

(表示1919年時已發生的情況)

(2)by +將來時間、by the time/ when +謂語動詞是一般現在時的從句,主句用將來完成時。如:

By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

(3)by now、since +過去時間、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具體數字)years/days/months,主句用現在完成時, 但在it is +具體時間since/before這一句型中,主句更多的時候不用完成時。如:

The changes that had taken place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century.

It is four years since John left school.

(4)在It is the +序數詞/形容詞最高級+that的定語從句中,謂語動詞常用現在完成時。如:

It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.

(5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…句型中,主句常用過去完成時。

3.完成進行時指動作在完成時的基礎上還要繼續下去。如:

The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.

時態、語態答題思路:

(1)先根據選項的區別點確定考題要點為時態,然后回到題句中尋找給出的或暗示的時間狀語,縮小選擇范圍,進而選出正確答案;

(2)根據謂語動詞與句子主語或非謂語動詞與其邏輯主語的關系,確定句子是主動語態還是被動語態。

四、分詞

分詞起形容詞和副詞的作用,在句中做定語或狀語。在概念上應清楚:

● 現在分詞表示主動,表示動作在進行。

● 過去分詞表示被動,表示動作結束了的狀態或結果。

1.分詞做定語,弄清現在分詞與過去分詞的區別

分詞短語做定語相當于省略了的定語從句,考生應掌握:

(1)現在分詞與被修飾詞之間具有主動意義。如:

It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world.(相當于the changes which take place...)

There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.(相當于which gave...)

How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

(相當于How many of us who will attend...)

(2)過去分詞與被修飾詞之間具有被動意義。如:

Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered. (相當于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)

Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相當于…each new phone which is added to…)

The author gave a detailed deion based on his personal observation of nature.

(相當于…deion which was based on…)

(3)下列不及物動詞也以過去分詞形式做定語或表語,但不具有被動意義:

deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如:

an escaped prisoner一個逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人

a faded curtain一個褪了色的窗簾 a newly arrived student一個新來的學生

2.分詞做狀語,注意區分分詞的一般式與完成式

(1)表示時間,多置于句首,注意如果分詞表示的動作的時間先于謂語動詞,要用完成式。如:

Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前發生)

(2)表示原因,置于句首句尾均可,根據情況有時要用完成式,有時用一般式。如:

He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.

There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.

(3)表示伴隨、方式,置于句尾,用分詞的一般式。如:

Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.

Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.

(4)表示結果,置于句尾,用分詞的一般式。如:The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.

(5)表示補充說明(同位),置于句尾,用分詞的一般式。如:The article opens and closes with deions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.

Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.

3.分詞的獨立主格結構

分詞的邏輯主語一般為句子的主語,否則分詞短語要有自己的邏輯主語,稱為分詞獨立主格結構。分詞獨立主格結構只是句子的一個部分。如:

All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.

 五、非謂語動詞的其他考點

1.接不定式或動名詞做賓語都可以,但在意思上有區別的動詞的用法

mean to do想要(做某事) propose to do 打算(做某事)

mean doing意味(做某事) propose doing建議(做某事)

forget to do忘記(要做的事) remember to do記得(要做某事)

forget doing忘記(已做的事) remember doing記得(已做過的事)

go on to do繼而(做另一件事) stop to do停下來去做另一件事

go on doing繼續(做原來的事) stop doing停止正在做的事

regret to do(對將要做的事)遺憾 regret doing(對已做過的事)后悔

2.不定式的習慣用法

句型:cannot help but do cannot but do

cannot choose but do can do nothing but do

have no choice/alternative but to do

上述句型的意思接近,即“不得不做”、“不禁做”、“不由自主地做”、“不能不做”、“只能做”。如:

Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.

When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift.

3.動名詞的習慣用法

句型:be busy/active doing sth. have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth.

It’s no good/use/picnic doing sth. have a good/great/wonderful time doing sth.

spend/waste time doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth.

cannot help doing sth. There is no doing sth.

I know it isn’t important but I can’t help thinking about it.

Alice was having trouble controlling the children because there were so many of them.

There is no use crying over spilt milk.

4.there be 非謂語動詞的用法

(1)做賓語時取決于謂語動詞的持續要求。如:

The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.(expect要求接不定式做賓語)

(2)做目的狀語或程度狀語時用for there to be,做其他狀語用there being。如:

For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (for there to be…在句中做目的狀語)

It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.

(for there to be…在句中做程度狀語)

There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (there being…做原因狀語)

(3)引導主語用for there to be。如:It is unusual for there to be no late comers today.

(4)做除for外的介詞賓語,用there being。如:

He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought.

、情態動詞

注意情態動詞完成式的用法有兩方面的含義:

1.表示已經發生的情況

(1)must have +過去分詞,表示對已發生情況的肯定推測,譯為“(昨天)一定……”。如:

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

(2)can’t/couldn’t have +過去分詞,表示對已發生情況的否定推測,譯為“(昨天)一定沒……”。 如:

Mary couldn’t have received my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

(3)may/might have +過去分詞,表示對已發生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推測,或事實上根本沒發生,譯為“也許……”。如:At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.

2.表示虛擬語氣

(1)needn’t have+過去分詞,表示做了不必做的事,譯為“其實沒必要……”。如:

As it turned out to be a small house party, we needn’t have dressed up so formally.

(2)should /should not have +過去分詞,表示應該做某事但實際上未做,或本不應該做但實際上做了, 譯為“本(不)應該……”。如:I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

(3)ought to have+過去分詞,表示動作按理該發生了,但實際上未發生,譯為“該……”,與should的完成式含義類似。如:

The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.

(4)could have+過去分詞,表示過去本來可以做但卻未做,譯為“完全可以……”。如:

What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

(5)may/might have + 過去分詞,表示過去可以做但實際未做,譯為“(那樣)也許會……”。如:

It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.

3.幾個情態動詞?嫉木湫

(1)may/might (just) as well“不妨,最好”,與had better相近。如:

Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

(2)cannot/can’t…too… “越……越好,怎么也不過分”。注意這個句型的變體cannot…over…。如:

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.

The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be overemphasized.

(3)usedn’t或didn’t use to為used to (do)的否定式。

(4)should 除了“應該”一層意思外,大綱還規定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:

I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that.

、虛擬語氣

1.主從句謂語動詞的時態

(1)掌握主從句謂語動詞的規范搭配:

主句

從句

與現在事實相反

would/情態動詞過去式+do

were (不分人稱)/did

與過去事實相反

would/情態動詞過去式+have done

had done

與將來事實相反

would/情態動詞過去式+do

should do / were to do

如:If the doctor had been available, the child could not have died.

There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, should there be a sudden loud noise.

(2)區分主從句表示的不同時間概念:

主從句謂語動詞所指時間不同,這叫做錯綜時間條件句,動詞形式應根據實際情況來調整。如:

Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.

(主句與現在事實相反,從句與過去事實相反)

Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.

(主句與現在事實相反,從句與過去事實相反)

(3)識別事實和假設混合句:

Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time. (句子前半部分為假設情況,而“父母病了”是事實)

I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. (前半部分為假設,后半部分是事實)

2.名詞性從句的虛擬形式

名詞性從句是指賓語從句、主語從句、表語從句和同位語從句。從句的謂語動詞需用(should+)動詞原形表示虛擬?忌鷳煜ぃ

(1)下列動詞做謂語時,that賓語從句中的動詞用虛擬形式:

desire, advise, recommend, command, direct, order, ask, demand, request, require, insist, maintain, move, propose, prefer, urge, vote。如:

In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home.

I move that he be discharged for his serious mistake.

(2)下列形容詞和分詞做表語或補語時,that主語從句中動詞用虛擬形式:

advisable, desirable, insistent, preferable, urgent, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, possible, probable, proper, vital, advised, arranged, commanded, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, required, suggested。如:

The board deem it urgent that these files should be printed right away.

It is essential that all these figures be checked twice.

(3)下列名詞接同位語從句或表語從句時,從句中動詞用虛擬形式:

insistence, preference, recommendation, suggestion, proposal, motion, desire, requirement, request, order, necessity, importance, regulation, rule, resolution, understanding。如:

John Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative be sent to the conference on schedule.

3.含蓄虛擬條件句的謂語動詞形式

含蓄虛擬語氣是指假設條件不通過if從句表達,而是暗含在其他結構中?忌鷳煜ぃ

(1)連詞but, but that, or, or else;副詞otherwise, unfortunately等表示轉折假設。如:

A safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

Victor obviously doesn’t know what’s happened; otherwise he wouldn’t have made such a stupid remark.

(2)介詞短語暗含假設條件,常用的有:without, but for, under more favorable conditions等。如:

But for the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.

(3)intended/meant/hoped/wished/plann或was/were +不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished

+不定式一般式暗示虛擬語氣。如:I intended to have called on you, but I was busy at that time.

(4)情態動詞完成式暗示虛擬語氣。如:I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.

4.常用虛擬形式的句型

(1)從句中動詞用過去式或過去完成式表示虛擬的句型:

would rather would as soon as though suppose…

had rather would sooner as if supposing…

If only… It is (high) time that…(從句中動詞只用過去式)

如:His wife would rather they didn’t talk about the matter any more.

I’d rather you went by train, because I can’t bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather.

If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.

My father always talks as though he were addressing a public meeting.

(2)If it were not for… (與現在事實相反)

If it had not been for… (與過去事實相反) 相當于but for。如:

If it had not been for his help (= but for his help), we would not have succeeded.

(3)If only…謂語動詞視情況選用適當的形式。如:

If only the committee would approve the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

(4)lest/for fear that/in case 從句謂語用(should+)動詞原形。如:

The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.

(5)whether…or…有時謂語用be的原形,引導讓步虛擬從句,這種用法經常采用倒裝結構。如:

Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

八、形容詞、副詞及其比較級

1.形容詞的句法功能

形容詞在句中做定語、表語和主語?忌鷳⒁猓

(1)以 “a” 開頭的形容詞如alone, alike, asleep, awake等不能做前置定語,可做表語或后置定語。

(2)某些以副詞詞綴 “-ly” 結尾的詞是形容詞,如friendly, leisurely, lovely等。

(3)下列動詞既是實義動詞又是系動詞,注意用做系動詞時,要求形容詞做表語:remain, keep, become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。

2.考比較級時,考生應把握

(1)形容詞和副詞比較級的形式是否和比較連詞對應出現,即是否符合原級比較及比較級的結構。如:

Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often as good as, or better than an actual performance.

On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.

(2)比較的成分是否屬于同類事物或同類概念。如:

The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half that of last year’s.

Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of Dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.

(3)比較級的修飾語如 a little, a lot, the, any, even, far, hardly, lots, much, rather,還有表示倍數比較的詞等,他們的位置是:修飾語+as…as…, 或修飾語+more…than…。如:

Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills seven times more people each year than automobile accidents.

“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?” “No, I would gladly have paid twice as much for it.”

(4)下列詞和短語不用比較級形式卻表示比較概念:

inferior,minor,senior,prior,prefer to,superior,major,junior,preferable,differ from,compared with,in comparison with,different from,rather than。如:Their watch is superior to all the other watches on the market.

3.最高級形式應注意的問題

比較級形式表示最高級意義時,比較對象的范圍應用:

any other +單數名詞

the other +復數名詞

the others

anyone/anything else

上述詞是用來將比較級結構轉變成最高級意義的關鍵詞語,切不可遺漏,否則會造成邏輯混亂的錯誤。如不能說:John runs faster than anyone.注意與漢語表達的不同。

4.有關比較級的特殊句型

(1)not so much…as…與其說……不如說……

The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

(2)no/not any more…than…兩者一樣都不……The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.

(3)no /not any less…than…兩者一樣都……She is no less beautiful than her sister.

(4)just as…so….正如……,……也……(用倒裝結構)Just as the soil is a part of the earth, so is the atmosphere.

、代詞

1.與所指代的名詞在性、數、格上是否一致

如:Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect.

It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.

2.that的指代作用

that指代不可數名詞和單數可數名詞(如是復數,用those),后面通常跟有修飾語,如出現在比較結構中的that of。如:Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.

No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.

3.one的指代作用

one指代不確指的單數可數名詞,復數為ones。the one 指代確指的單數可數名詞。如:

A good writer is one who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.

 十、主謂一致問題

1.主語與謂語之間有定語從句或其他結構修飾,所以距離較遠,考生易誤認主語。如:

The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.

2.關系代詞做主語的定語從句中,謂語的數要與先行詞一致。如:

Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.

There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.

3.動名詞短語、不定式短語、名詞性從句做主語,謂語用單數。如:

Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.

To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.

4.主語帶有(together/along)with, such as, as well as, accompanied by, including, rather than等附加成分, 謂語的數不受附加成分的影響。如:

The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.

5.表示時間、距離、金額、重量、面積、體積、容積等度量的名詞短語做主語時,謂語用單數。

6.某些固定結構中謂語的數:

a great many + 可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

many a + 可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

a number of +可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

the number of +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

the majority of +可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

each/every +可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

neither/either of +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

more than one +可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

one and a half +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

the greater part of / a large proportion of / 50% of / one third of / plenty of / the rest of

謂語的數與of后面的名詞一致

十一、平行結構

1.注意比較結構中相比較的內容在語法形式上是否相同。如:

It is better to die on one’s feet than to live on one’s knees.

Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.

2.其他具有并列或比較意義的短語。

(1)rather than, let alone 雖不是并列連詞,但在結構上連接兩個語法形式相同的成分。如:

We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style.

For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.

(2)如果平行的兩個成分在形式上是介詞短語,而且介詞相同,一般說來第二個介詞不要省略。如:

At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.

 十二、倒裝結構

1.下列否定詞及含有否定意義的詞組修飾狀語時,若置于句首,句子的主謂要部分倒裝

never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。如:

Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.

2.以only修飾狀語開頭的句子,句子的主謂要部分倒裝

Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.

3.以下列副詞或短語開頭的句子,句子的主謂要部分倒裝

often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。如:

So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.

4.以下列副詞開頭的句子,句子的主謂要全部倒裝

(1)出于修辭需要,表示方向的副詞:out, down, in, up, away, on。如:

Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

(2)出于習慣用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如:

Now is your turn. There goes the bell.

5.讓步從句的倒裝

(1)as引導讓步狀語從句,必須采用倒裝結構,但不是主謂倒裝,而是將被強調的內容置于句首。如:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

(2)出現在句型be+主語+其他, come what may中。如:

Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

Come what may, I’ll be on your side.

6.比較從句的倒裝

as, than引導的比較從句中,如果主語是名詞短語且較長,經常采用倒裝結構(不倒裝也可以)。注意:這種結構主語一般為名詞,如果是代詞則不倒裝。如:

Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.

 十三、復合句——形容詞性(定語)從句

1.尤其要注意whose的用法

whose在從句中做定語,修飾名詞。所以,如果關系代詞后面緊接的是名詞,且關系代詞又不在從句中做主語或賓語,那么,這個關系代詞就應該是whose。如:

2.介詞 + which的用法

如果從句中主賓成分齊全,考生便可考慮關系代詞是否在從句中做狀語,而狀語通常用介詞短語充當,于是可以得知,關系代詞前面應有介詞,再分析所給的選項,根據與名詞的搭配作出正確選擇。如:

We are not conscious of the extent to which work provides the psychological satisfaction that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.

3.as 與which用作關系代詞的區別

(1)as與the same, such, so, as等關聯使用。如:As the forest goes, so goes its animal life.

(2)as和which都可以引導非限定性定語從句,但as在句中的位置比較靈活,可出現在句首、句中、句末,而which只能出現在句末,尤其是當先行詞是整個句子時。如:

As is true in all institutions, juries are capable of making mistakes.

As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

常見的這類結構有:as has been said before, as has been mentioned above, as can be imagined, as is known to all, as has been announced, as can be seen from these figures, as might/could be expected, as is often the case, as has been pointed out, as often happens, as will be shown等。

4.關系代詞that與which用于引導定語從句的區別

(1)如果關系代詞在從句中做賓語,用that, which都可以,而且可以省略;

(2)先行詞是不定代詞anything, nothing, little, all, everything時,關系代詞用that;

(3)先行詞由形容詞最高級或序數詞修飾或由next,last, only, very修飾時,用that;

(4)非限定性定語從句只能用which引導;

(5)關系代詞前面如果有介詞,只能用which。

5.but做關系代詞,用于否定句,相當于who…not, that…not

這個結構的特點是主句中常有否定詞或含有否定意義的詞。如:

There are few teachers but know how to use a computer.

There is no complicated problem but can be solved by a computer.

、復合句——副詞性(狀語)從句

副詞在句中起狀語作用,故如果起狀語作用的部分為一個句子,那么該句便是副詞性從句,也稱狀語從句。狀語從句可細分為:時間、地點、條件、原因、讓步、目的、結果、比較、方式等。

狀語從句的測試重點為:考查考生對主從句之間邏輯意義關系的把握,看其是否能選擇正確的從屬連詞。

1.條件狀語從句的?贾R點

(1)if與unless的用法。

if和unless都是引導條件狀語從句的連詞,考生應尤其注意unless的用法,因為它表示反面條件,相當于if not“如果不”、“除非”。如:

In debating, one must correct the opponent’s facts, deny the relevance of his proof, or deny that what he presents as proof, if relevant, is sufficient.

(2)復合連詞as long as,so long as,as far as,on condition that,in the event that;動詞及分詞provided(that),providing(that),given that, suppose/supposing(that),assuming,say等引導條件狀語從句。如:

You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don’t mind taking the night train.

Assuming he is diligent in his studies at ordinary times, he is sure to pass the test.

In the event that she has not been informed, I will tell her. (如果……)

You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far from the river bank. (如果……)

Suppose it rained, we would still go. (假如……)

Say it were true, what would you do about it? (假如……)

(3)祈使句表示條件。如:Dress warmly, or else you’ll catch cold.

Talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.

2.讓步狀語從句的?贾R點

(1)as 引導讓步從句,要求用倒裝結構,把強調的部分置于句首。如:

Much as he likes her, he does get irritated with her sometimes.

Humble as it may be, there is no place like home.

(2)while引導讓步從句。如:

Everybody cheats a little, some psychologists say, while others insist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn’t cheat under any circumstances.

(3)復合連接詞for all that和分詞granting/granted(that)引導讓步從句。如:

Granted you have made much progress, you should not be conceited.

For all that computers can provide us with great help, they shouldn’t be seen as substitutes for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.

3.時間狀語從句的?贾R點

(1)before表示漢語的 “只有/必須……才能”。如:

New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fully accepted.

(2)when引導時間從句時,如果出現在后半句,則表示“這/那時突然”。如:

I have just started back for the house to change my clothes when I heard the voices.

(3)when it comes to 是習慣用法,意為“當談到……時”。如:

Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.

(4)名詞短語、介詞短語each /every time, the moment/second/minute, in the time, by the time起連詞作用。如:

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

Mercury’s velocity is so much greater than the Earth’s that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time it takes the Earth to complete one.

(5)副詞directly, immediately, instantly, now引導時間從句, 相當于as soon as。如:

The policemen went into action directly they heard the alarm.

4.原因狀語從句的?贾R點

(1)in that引導原因從句時,有時翻譯成“是因為”、“就在于”。如:

Advertising is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.

Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us to find and correct our mistakes.

(2)now that表示 “既然” ; seeing that, considering表示“鑒于”、“考慮到”。如:

Now that we have all the material ready, we should begin the new task at once.

He did poorly in the examinations, considering how hard he had tried for them.

Seeing that she is lawfully old enough to get married, I don’t think you can stop her.

其他引導原因狀語從句的連接詞語還有: for the (simple) reason that, by reason that, on the grounds that, in as much as, in so far as等。

5.while, whereas 引導對比從句

如: While the teenage population in the United States has declined over the past decade, violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased.

A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult, whereas he is likely to smile and reach out to another infant.

6.so…that…, with the result that, so much so that 引導結果狀語從句

如: Over the years, a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

He himself believed in freedom, so much so that he would rather die than live without it.

7.in order that, in case, for fear that, lest (用虛擬語氣) 引導目的狀語從句

如: Give me your telephone number, in case I need your help.

Helen listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what John wanted.

8.where作為連接副詞的一種用法, 翻譯為“在……地方”

如: In Japan, a person’s capabilities are not forced into an inflexible specialty. Where there is willingness and intelligence, there is a place within the company to try and to succeed.

 十、復合句——名詞性從句

一個句子起名詞的作用,在句中做主語、賓語/介詞賓語、表語、同位語,那么這個句子就是名詞性從句。

1.what/whatever的用法

考生應把握:what是關系代詞,它起著引導從句并在從句中擔當一個成分這兩個作用。如:

They lost their way in the forest, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall.

(what既引導主語從句又在從句中做主語)

Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen.

(what既引導表語從句又在從句中做表語)

2.whoever和whomever的區別

whoever和whomever相當于anyone who,用主格與賓格取決于其在從句中做主語還是做賓語。如:

They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first. (whoever在從句中做主語)

3.有關同位語從句的問題

(1)引導詞通常為that, 但有時因名詞內容的需要,也可由whether及連接副詞why, when, where,how引導。that不表示任何意義,其他詞表示時間、地點、原因等。如:

The problem, where I will have my college education, at home or abroad, remains untouched.

(2)同位語從句有時與先行詞隔開,注意識別。如:

Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.

4.whether與if在引導名詞性從句時的區別

(1)主語從句只能用whether引導;

(2)whether一般多用于賓語從句的肯定式,而if引導的從句可以有否定式;

(3)whether or not可以連在一起用,而if or not則不能,or not只能放在句末;

(4)whether可以引導介詞賓語從句,if則不能;

(5)賓語從句提至謂語前面時,只能用whether引導;

(6)在question, ask后面一般只用whether,question的同位語從句也用whether引導;

(7)后接不定式時,只能用whether。

5.動詞believe, expect, fancy, imagine, suppose, think后的賓語從句如為否定式,一般將否定詞轉移到主句謂語上。

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