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時間:2018-09-01 00:18:58  發布: 廣東省專插本招生   




(1)引導邏輯主語的介詞:不定式的邏輯主語一般由介詞for引導,但下列表示人的性格行為特征的形容詞做表語時, 不定式的邏輯主語則由of引導:

absurd, bold, brave, courageous, careful, careless, clever, wise, foolish, silly, stupid, good, nice, kind, thoughtful, considerate, greedy, generous, honest, modest, polite, rude, cruel, selfish, lazy, wicked, wrong。如:

Experts say walking is one of the best ways for a person to stay healthy.

It’s clever of you to have invented such a device.



be said / reported / thought / believed / known / supposed + to do sth.



afford, arrange, attempt, claim, desire, determine, expect, fail, guarantee, endeavor, intend, pledge, pretend, resolve, request, swear, tend, venture。如:

Even though the children pretended to be asleep, the nurses were not deceived when they came into the room.


(1)被修飾的名詞前有序數詞、形容詞最高級或next, last, only, not a, the, very等限定詞時,該名詞用不定式做定語。如:the first woman to set foot on the moon 第一個登上月球的女性


tendency to do→tend to do, decision to do→decide to do

This book is an attempt to help you use English and recognize how it is used.


ambition to do “干……的雄心”→be ambitious to do“有雄心干……”

curiosity to do “對……的好奇心”→be curious to do“對……好奇”

ability to do“做……的能力”→able to do“有能力做……”

According to Darwin, random changes that enhance a species’ ability to survive are naturally selected and passed on to succeeding generation.


way, method, reason, time, place, chance, occasion, opportunity, evidence, power, right, movement, drive (運動),effort等。如:I worked so late in the office last night that I hardly had time to catch the last bus.

We appreciate your efforts to bring about a comprehensive solution to the existing problem.

(5)不定代詞something, nothing, little, much, a lot習慣上用不定式做定語。如:

Though we have made great progress, there is still much to be improved.



(1)in order to(do), so as to(do)結構引導目的狀語,so as to不能置于句首。如:

(2)so…as to, such…as to, enough…to, too…to結構做程度狀語。如:

The solution works only for couples who are self-employed, don’t have small children and get along well enough to spend most of their time together.

The vocabulary and grammatical differences between British and American English are so trivial and few as hardly to be noticed.


常見的不定式動詞有find, hear, see, be told, form, give, make, produce等。如:

Greatly agitated, I rushed to the apartment and tried the door, only to find it locked.

(4)not/never too… to, too… not to, but/only too…to, too ready/eager/apt/inclined to 表示肯定意義。如:

I am only too pleased to hear from you further. 能再聽到你的消息,我太高興了。




acknowledge, advocate, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, admit, confess, consider, delay, deny, enjoy, escape, excuse, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, imagine, involve, justify, mention, pardon, practice, postpone, recall,recollect,risk, resist, suggest, tolerate。如:

I appreciate having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.



object to, resort to, react to, contribute to, look forward to, be accustomed to, be committed to, be exposed to, be subjected to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, be opposed to, be reconciled to, be contrary to, be (get) used to, come close to, get down to, give oneself up to, prefer…to, see to, set to, take to, in addition to, with regard to, with a view to, on the way to。





I’ll tell him when you will ring again. 我告訴他你什么時候再來電話。(賓語從句)

比較:I’ll tell him when you ring again.你再打電話時我告訴他。(狀語從句)

(2)在make sure, make certain, see (to it) 后的that從句中,謂語動詞用一般現在時代替將來時,如:

See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they didn’t know the answer to last time.

(include 不能用will include或其他形式)


(1)by/between/up to/till +過去時間、since、by the time/when +表示過去發生情況的從句,主句用過去完成時。如:We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door.

Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which artificial beings were portrayed had been produced.


(2)by +將來時間、by the time/ when +謂語動詞是一般現在時的從句,主句用將來完成時。如:

By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for two weeks.

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

(3)by now、since +過去時間、in/during/for/over/the past/last few(或具體數字)years/days/months,主句用現在完成時, 但在it is +具體時間since/before這一句型中,主句更多的時候不用完成時。如:

The changes that had taken place in air travel during the last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century.

It is four years since John left school.

(4)在It is the +序數詞/形容詞最高級+that的定語從句中,謂語動詞常用現在完成時。如:

It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing situation.

(5)在no sooner…than…, hardly/scarcely…when…句型中,主句常用過去完成時。


The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but nothing has happened.






● 現在分詞表示主動,表示動作在進行。

● 過去分詞表示被動,表示動作結束了的狀態或結果。




It’s easy to blame the decline of conversation on the pace of modern life and on the vague changes taking place in our ever-increasing world.(相當于the changes which take place...)

There was a very interesting remark in a book by an Englishman that I read recently giving what he thought was a reason for this American characteristic.(相當于which gave...)

How many of us attending, say, a meeting that is irrelevant to us would be interested in the discussion?

(相當于How many of us who will attend...)


Good news was sometimes released prematurely, with the British recapture of the port announced half a day before the defenders actually surrendered. (相當于…recapture of the port which had been announced…)

Just as the value of a telephone network increases with each new phone added to the system, so does the value of a computer system increase with each program that turns out. (相當于…each new phone which is added to…)

The author gave a detailed deion based on his personal observation of nature.

(相當于…deion which was based on…)


deceased, departed, elapsed, faded, fallen, gone, grown-up, retired, returned, risen, set, vanished, much-travelled, newly arrived, recently come。如:

an escaped prisoner一個逃犯 a retired worker一位退休工人

a faded curtain一個褪了色的窗簾 a newly arrived student一個新來的學生



Having completed one task, we started on another one. (complete先于start之前發生)


He wasn’t asked to take on the chairmanship of the society, being considered insufficiently popular with all members.

There seemed little hope that the explorer, having been deserted in the tropical forest, would find his way through it.


Helen borrowed my dictionary the other day saying that she would return it soon.

Anna was reading a piece of science fiction, completely lost to the outside world.

(4)表示結果,置于句尾,用分詞的一般式。如:The city found itself in a crisis situation last summer when the air conditioning on dozens of the new buses broke down, them unusable.

(5)表示補充說明(同位),置于句尾,用分詞的一般式。如:The article opens and closes with deions of two news reports, each making one major point in contrast with the other.

Ford tried dividing the labor, each worker assigned a separate task.



All flights having been canceled because of the snowstorm, we decided to take the train.

Darkness setting in, the young couple lingered on merrymaking.



mean to do想要(做某事) propose to do 打算(做某事)

mean doing意味(做某事) propose doing建議(做某事)

forget to do忘記(要做的事) remember to do記得(要做某事)

forget doing忘記(已做的事) remember doing記得(已做過的事)

go on to do繼而(做另一件事) stop to do停下來去做另一件事

go on doing繼續(做原來的事) stop doing停止正在做的事

regret to do(對將要做的事)遺憾 regret doing(對已做過的事)后悔


句型:cannot help but do cannot but do

cannot choose but do can do nothing but do

have no choice/alternative but to do


Nobody can help but be fascinated by the world into which he is taken by the science fiction.

When I consider how talented he is as a painter, I cannot help but believe that the public will appreciate his gift.


句型:be busy/active doing sth. have difficulty/trouble/problem doing sth.

It’s no good/use/picnic doing sth. have a good/great/wonderful time doing sth.

spend/waste time doing sth. There is no point/sense/harm/ use doing sth.

cannot help doing sth. There is no doing sth.

I know it isn’t important but I can’t help thinking about it.

Alice was having trouble controlling the children because there were so many of them.

There is no use crying over spilt milk.

4.there be 非謂語動詞的用法


The students expected there to be more reviewing classes before the final exams.(expect要求接不定式做賓語)

(2)做目的狀語或程度狀語時用for there to be,做其他狀語用there being。如:

For there to be successful communication, there must be attentiveness and involvement in the discussion itself by all present. (for there to be…在句中做目的狀語)

It isn’t cold enough for there to be a frost tonight, so I can leave Jim’s car out quite safely.

(for there to be…在句中做程度狀語)

There being no further questions, we’ll stop here today. (there being…做原因狀語)

(3)引導主語用for there to be。如:It is unusual for there to be no late comers today.

(4)做除for外的介詞賓語,用there being。如:

He would always ignore the fact of there being such a contradiction in his inner thought.




(1)must have +過去分詞,表示對已發生情況的肯定推測,譯為“(昨天)一定……”。如:

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

(2)can’t/couldn’t have +過去分詞,表示對已發生情況的否定推測,譯為“(昨天)一定沒……”。 如:

Mary couldn’t have received my letter; otherwise she would have replied before now.

(3)may/might have +過去分詞,表示對已發生的事情做不肯定、可能性很小的推測,或事實上根本沒發生,譯為“也許……”。如:At Florida Power’s Crystal River plant, a potentially serious leakage of radioactive water may have been unknowingly caused by an electrician.


(1)needn’t have+過去分詞,表示做了不必做的事,譯為“其實沒必要……”。如:

As it turned out to be a small house party, we needn’t have dressed up so formally.

(2)should /should not have +過去分詞,表示應該做某事但實際上未做,或本不應該做但實際上做了, 譯為“本(不)應該……”。如:I regret having left the work unfinished; I should have planned everything ahead carefully.

(3)ought to have+過去分詞,表示動作按理該發生了,但實際上未發生,譯為“該……”,與should的完成式含義類似。如:

The porter ought to have called the fire-brigade as soon as he saw the fire in the stock, which went up in smoke.

(4)could have+過去分詞,表示過去本來可以做但卻未做,譯為“完全可以……”。如:

What you said is right, but you could have phrased it more tactfully.

(5)may/might have + 過去分詞,表示過去可以做但實際未做,譯為“(那樣)也許會……”。如:

It might have been better to include more punchy statistics and photos of equipment in the introduction to further assist first-time office automation managers.


(1)may/might (just) as well“不妨,最好”,與had better相近。如:

Since the flight was cancelled, you might as well go by train.

(2)cannot/can’t…too… “越……越好,怎么也不過分”。注意這個句型的變體cannot…over…。如:

You cannot be too careful when you drive a car.

The final chapter covers organizational change and development. This subject cannot be overemphasized.

(3)usedn’t或didn’t use to為used to (do)的否定式。

(4)should 除了“應該”一層意思外,大綱還規定要掌握其“竟然”的意思。如:

I didn’t expect that he should have behaved like that.








were (不分人稱)/did


would/情態動詞過去式+have done

had done



should do / were to do

如:If the doctor had been available, the child could not have died.

There is a real possibility that these animals could be frightened, should there be a sudden loud noise.



Had it not been for the timely investment from the general public, our company would not be so thriving as it is.


Had Paul received six more votes in the last election, he would be our chairman now.



Your math instructor would have been happy to give you a make-up examination had you gone and explained that your parents were ill at the time. (句子前半部分為假設情況,而“父母病了”是事實)

I would have gone to visit him in the hospital had it been at all possible, but I was fully occupied the whole of last week. (前半部分為假設,后半部分是事實)




desire, advise, recommend, command, direct, order, ask, demand, request, require, insist, maintain, move, propose, prefer, urge, vote。如:

In the past men generally preferred that their wives work in the home.

I move that he be discharged for his serious mistake.


advisable, desirable, insistent, preferable, urgent, appropriate, compulsory, crucial, essential, imperative, important, necessary, obligatory, possible, probable, proper, vital, advised, arranged, commanded, demanded, desired, ordered, proposed, recommended, requested, required, suggested。如:

The board deem it urgent that these files should be printed right away.

It is essential that all these figures be checked twice.


insistence, preference, recommendation, suggestion, proposal, motion, desire, requirement, request, order, necessity, importance, regulation, rule, resolution, understanding。如:

John Wagner’s most enduring contribution to the study of Afro-American poetry is his insistence that it be analyzed in a religious, as well as worldly, frame of reference.

They keep telling us it is of utmost importance that our representative be sent to the conference on schedule.



(1)連詞but, but that, or, or else;副詞otherwise, unfortunately等表示轉折假設。如:

A safety analysis would have identified the target as a potential danger. Unfortunately, it was never done.

Victor obviously doesn’t know what’s happened; otherwise he wouldn’t have made such a stupid remark.

(2)介詞短語暗含假設條件,常用的有:without, but for, under more favorable conditions等。如:

But for the English examination I would have gone to the concert last Sunday.

(3)intended/meant/hoped/wished/plann或was/were +不定式完成式或had intended/meant/planned/hoped/wished

+不定式一般式暗示虛擬語氣。如:I intended to have called on you, but I was busy at that time.

(4)情態動詞完成式暗示虛擬語氣。如:I should have called to make an airline reservation, but I didn’t.



would rather would as soon as though suppose…

had rather would sooner as if supposing…

If only… It is (high) time that…(從句中動詞只用過去式)

如:His wife would rather they didn’t talk about the matter any more.

I’d rather you went by train, because I can’t bear the idea of your being in an airplane in such bad weather.

If I were in a movie, then it would be about time that I buried my head in my hands for a cry.

My father always talks as though he were addressing a public meeting.

(2)If it were not for… (與現在事實相反)

If it had not been for… (與過去事實相反) 相當于but for。如:

If it had not been for his help (= but for his help), we would not have succeeded.

(3)If only…謂語動詞視情況選用適當的形式。如:

If only the committee would approve the regulations and put them into effect as soon as possible.

(4)lest/for fear that/in case 從句謂語用(should+)動詞原形。如:

The mad man was put in the soft-padded cell lest he injure himself.


Church as we use the word refers to all religious institutions, be they Christian, Islamic, Buddhist, Jewish, and so on.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.




(1)以 “a” 開頭的形容詞如alone, alike, asleep, awake等不能做前置定語,可做表語或后置定語。

(2)某些以副詞詞綴 “-ly” 結尾的詞是形容詞,如friendly, leisurely, lovely等。

(3)下列動詞既是實義動詞又是系動詞,注意用做系動詞時,要求形容詞做表語:remain, keep, become, get, grow, go, come, turn, stay, stand, run, prove, seem, appear, look。



Do you enjoy listening to records? I find records are often as good as, or better than an actual performance.

On the whole, ambitious students are more likely to succeed in their studies than are those with little ambition.


The number of registered participants in this year’s marathon was half that of last year’s.

Young readers, more often than not, find the novels of Dickens far more exciting than Thackeray’s.

(3)比較級的修飾語如 a little, a lot, the, any, even, far, hardly, lots, much, rather,還有表示倍數比較的詞等,他們的位置是:修飾語+as…as…, 或修飾語+more…than…。如:

Smoking is so harmful to personal health that it kills seven times more people each year than automobile accidents.

“Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting?” “No, I would gladly have paid twice as much for it.”


inferior,minor,senior,prior,prefer to,superior,major,junior,preferable,differ from,compared with,in comparison with,different from,rather than。如:Their watch is superior to all the other watches on the market.



any other +單數名詞

the other +復數名詞

the others

anyone/anything else

上述詞是用來將比較級結構轉變成最高級意義的關鍵詞語,切不可遺漏,否則會造成邏輯混亂的錯誤。如不能說:John runs faster than anyone.注意與漢語表達的不同。


(1)not so much…as…與其說……不如說……

The chief reason for the population growth isn’t so much a rise in birth rates as a fall in death rates as a result of improvements in medical care.

(2)no/not any more…than…兩者一樣都不……The heart is no more intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.

There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take, any more than they can limit how much water you drink.

(3)no /not any less…than…兩者一樣都……She is no less beautiful than her sister.

(4)just as…so….正如……,……也……(用倒裝結構)Just as the soil is a part of the earth, so is the atmosphere.



如:Each cigarette a person smokes does some harm, and eventually he may get a serious disease from its effect.

It was during the 1920’s that the friendship between the two American writers Hemingway and Fitzgerald reached its highest point.


that指代不可數名詞和單數可數名詞(如是復數,用those),后面通常跟有修飾語,如出現在比較結構中的that of。如:Conversation calls for a willingness to alternate the role of speaker with that of listener, and it calls for occasional “digestive pauses” by both.

No bread eaten by man is so sweet as that earned by his own labor.


one指代不確指的單數可數名詞,復數為ones。the one 指代確指的單數可數名詞。如:

A good writer is one who can express the commonplace in an uncommon way.



The amount of pressure which the materials are subject to affects the quality of the products.


Despite much research, there are still certain elements in the life cycle of the insect that are not fully understood.

There are many valuable services which the public are willing to pay for, but which do not bring a return in money to the community.


Buying clothes is often a time-consuming job because those clothes that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her.

To understand the situation completely requires more thought than has been given thus far.

4.主語帶有(together/along)with, such as, as well as, accompanied by, including, rather than等附加成分, 謂語的數不受附加成分的影響。如:

The president of the college, together with the deans, is planning a conference for the purpose of laying down certain regulations.



a great many + 可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

many a + 可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

a number of +可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

the number of +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

the majority of +可數名詞復數 謂語用復數

each/every +可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

neither/either of +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

more than one +可數名詞單數 謂語用單數

one and a half +可數名詞復數 謂語用單數

the greater part of / a large proportion of / 50% of / one third of / plenty of / the rest of




It is better to die on one’s feet than to live on one’s knees.

Despite the temporary difficulties, the manager prefers increasing the output to decreasing it.


(1)rather than, let alone 雖不是并列連詞,但在結構上連接兩個語法形式相同的成分。如:

We are taught that a business letter should be written in a formal style rather than in a personal style.

For the new country to survive, let alone for its people to enjoy prosperity, new economic policies will be required.


At times, more care goes into the composition of newspaper and magazine advertisements than into the writing of the features and editorials.



never, no, neither, not only, hardly, scarcely, little, seldom, rarely, not until, nowhere, at no time, on no account, in no respect, in no sense, by no means, in no way, no longer, no less, no more, no sooner than, under no circumstances, in vain, still less。如:

Not only is its direct attack on their discipline, it bypasses the essence of what sociologists focus on.

Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves but harm the interests of the state.


Only when you have obtained sufficient data can you come to a sound conclusion.


often, so, well, to such a degree, to such an extent, to such extremes, to such a point,many a time。如:

So involved with their computers do the children become that leaders at summer computer camps often have to force them to break for sports and games.


(1)出于修辭需要,表示方向的副詞:out, down, in, up, away, on。如:

Down jumped the burglar from the tenth floor when he heard someone shouted at him.

(2)出于習慣用法:here, there, now, thus, hence, then。如:

Now is your turn. There goes the bell.



Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone to equal her, in thoroughness, whatever the job.

(2)出現在句型be+主語+其他, come what may中。如:

Our civilization has accumulated an incredible amount of knowledge—be it scientific or artistic.

The business of each day, be it selling goods or shipping them, went quite smoothly.

Come what may, I’ll be on your side.


as, than引導的比較從句中,如果主語是名詞短語且較長,經常采用倒裝結構(不倒裝也可以)。注意:這種結構主語一般為名詞,如果是代詞則不倒裝。如:

Hydrogen burns much more cleanly than do other fuels and is easy to produce.

Reading is to the mind as is exercise to the body.




2.介詞 + which的用法


We are not conscious of the extent to which work provides the psychological satisfaction that can make the difference between a full and an empty life.

3.as 與which用作關系代詞的區別

(1)as與the same, such, so, as等關聯使用。如:As the forest goes, so goes its animal life.


As is true in all institutions, juries are capable of making mistakes.

As is generally accepted, economic growth is determined by the smooth development of production.

常見的這類結構有:as has been said before, as has been mentioned above, as can be imagined, as is known to all, as has been announced, as can be seen from these figures, as might/could be expected, as is often the case, as has been pointed out, as often happens, as will be shown等。


(1)如果關系代詞在從句中做賓語,用that, which都可以,而且可以省略;

(2)先行詞是不定代詞anything, nothing, little, all, everything時,關系代詞用that;

(3)先行詞由形容詞最高級或序數詞修飾或由next,last, only, very修飾時,用that;



5.but做關系代詞,用于否定句,相當于who…not, that…not


There are few teachers but know how to use a computer.

There is no complicated problem but can be solved by a computer.






if和unless都是引導條件狀語從句的連詞,考生應尤其注意unless的用法,因為它表示反面條件,相當于if not“如果不”、“除非”。如:

In debating, one must correct the opponent’s facts, deny the relevance of his proof, or deny that what he presents as proof, if relevant, is sufficient.

(2)復合連詞as long as,so long as,as far as,on condition that,in the event that;動詞及分詞provided(that),providing(that),given that, suppose/supposing(that),assuming,say等引導條件狀語從句。如:

You can arrive in Beijing earlier for the meeting provided you don’t mind taking the night train.

Assuming he is diligent in his studies at ordinary times, he is sure to pass the test.

In the event that she has not been informed, I will tell her. (如果……)

You can go swimming on condition that you don’t go too far from the river bank. (如果……)

Suppose it rained, we would still go. (假如……)

Say it were true, what would you do about it? (假如……)

(3)祈使句表示條件。如:Dress warmly, or else you’ll catch cold.

Talk to anyone in the drug industry, and you’ll soon discover that the science of genetics is the biggest thing to hit drug research since penicillin was discovered.


(1)as 引導讓步從句,要求用倒裝結構,把強調的部分置于句首。如:

Much as he likes her, he does get irritated with her sometimes.

Humble as it may be, there is no place like home.


Everybody cheats a little, some psychologists say, while others insist that most people are basically honest and some wouldn’t cheat under any circumstances.

(3)復合連接詞for all that和分詞granting/granted(that)引導讓步從句。如:

Granted you have made much progress, you should not be conceited.

For all that computers can provide us with great help, they shouldn’t be seen as substitutes for fundamental thinking and reasoning skills.


(1)before表示漢語的 “只有/必須……才能”。如:

New ideas sometimes have to wait for years before they are fully accepted.


I have just started back for the house to change my clothes when I heard the voices.

(3)when it comes to 是習慣用法,意為“當談到……時”。如:

Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests.

(4)名詞短語、介詞短語each /every time, the moment/second/minute, in the time, by the time起連詞作用。如:

I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come back next year.

My pain must have been apparent the moment I walked into the room, for the first man I met asked sympathetically: “Are you feeling all right?”

Mercury’s velocity is so much greater than the Earth’s that it completes more than four revolutions around the Sun in the time it takes the Earth to complete one.

(5)副詞directly, immediately, instantly, now引導時間從句, 相當于as soon as。如:

The policemen went into action directly they heard the alarm.


(1)in that引導原因從句時,有時翻譯成“是因為”、“就在于”。如:

Advertising is distinguished from other forms of communication in that the advertiser pays for the message to be delivered.

Criticism and self-criticism is necessary in that it helps us to find and correct our mistakes.

(2)now that表示 “既然” ; seeing that, considering表示“鑒于”、“考慮到”。如:

Now that we have all the material ready, we should begin the new task at once.

He did poorly in the examinations, considering how hard he had tried for them.

Seeing that she is lawfully old enough to get married, I don’t think you can stop her.

其他引導原因狀語從句的連接詞語還有: for the (simple) reason that, by reason that, on the grounds that, in as much as, in so far as等。

5.while, whereas 引導對比從句

如: While the teenage population in the United States has declined over the past decade, violent crimes committed by juveniles have sharply increased.

A baby might show fear of an unfamiliar adult, whereas he is likely to smile and reach out to another infant.

6.so…that…, with the result that, so much so that 引導結果狀語從句

如: Over the years, a large number of overseas students have studied at that university with the result that it has acquired substantial experience in dealing with them.

He himself believed in freedom, so much so that he would rather die than live without it.

7.in order that, in case, for fear that, lest (用虛擬語氣) 引導目的狀語從句

如: Give me your telephone number, in case I need your help.

Helen listened carefully in order that she might discover exactly what John wanted.

8.where作為連接副詞的一種用法, 翻譯為“在……地方”

如: In Japan, a person’s capabilities are not forced into an inflexible specialty. Where there is willingness and intelligence, there is a place within the company to try and to succeed.





They lost their way in the forest, and what made matters worse was that night began to fall.


Water will continue to be what it is today—next in importance to oxygen.



whoever和whomever相當于anyone who,用主格與賓格取決于其在從句中做主語還是做賓語。如:

They always give the vacant seats to whoever comes first. (whoever在從句中做主語)


(1)引導詞通常為that, 但有時因名詞內容的需要,也可由whether及連接副詞why, when, where,how引導。that不表示任何意義,其他詞表示時間、地點、原因等。如:

The problem, where I will have my college education, at home or abroad, remains untouched.


Evidence came up that specific speech sounds are recognized by babies as young as 6 months old.




(3)whether or not可以連在一起用,而if or not則不能,or not只能放在句末;



(6)在question, ask后面一般只用whether,question的同位語從句也用whether引導;


5.動詞believe, expect, fancy, imagine, suppose, think后的賓語從句如為否定式,一般將否定詞轉移到主句謂語上。

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